Geography and the American Military

The Army and its officer corps are becoming increasingly Southern and rural. Is this a bad thing? If so, what can we do about it?

In a WSJ op-ed titled “The Military Should Mirror the Nation,” AEI scholars Gary Schmitt and Cheryl Miller lament the Southernization of the officer corps and worry that the ROTC system is exacerbating the trend.  The statistics are indeed rather stark:

Few Americans today have a personal connection to the military. Veterans represent 9% of the total population (a number that continues to decline), and less than 1% serves in any of the military services, active duty or reserves.

Soldiers also come from a narrower segment of society—geographically and culturally—than ever before. Nearly half of all Army recruits come from military families. Southerners disproportionately populate all the branches, while the middle-class suburbs surrounding the nation’s largest cities—New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Boston and Philadelphia—produce relatively few service members despite having a large percentage of the nation’s youth population.

[…]

ROTC has become increasingly Southern and rural.

In Virginia, for example, there are 7.8 million residents and 11 Army ROTC programs. New York City, home to over eight million people and America’s largest university student population, has two Army ROTC programs. The entire Chicago metro area, with its 10 million residents, is covered by a single Army ROTC program, as is Detroit. Alabama, population 4.7 million, has 10.

Now, some of this is a tad misleading.    Chicago Army ROTC’s Fire Battalion serves seven colleges and universities.   And, while Alabama has roughly the same population as the Detroit Metro area, it’s much more geographically dispersed.

Still, if military service is an obligation that should be shared by all Americans, it makes sense to reach out.  Andrew Exum:

After my first year at the University of Pennsylvania, the U.S. Army decided our ROTC program should merge with and move down the street to Drexel University, which admittedly made some sense because Drexel had a National Guard Armory on their campus. It is thus one of the quirks of my biography that I was Drexel University’s ROTC commander as a college senior despite having never attended Drexel. But the U.S. Army has made a lot of decisions based solely on monetary cost-benefit calculations that have resulted in ROTC withering on the vine in the urban areas of the Northeast and, as Schmitt and Miller point out, a disproportionately small number of military officers hailing from the large middle-class suburbs of our nation’s urban centers in the North.

[…]

The U.S. Army, then, needs to be more intentional about recruiting officers outside the American South. It is no coincidence that the only combat arms officer commissioned into the U.S. Army from my class of 2,000+ at Penn was a white southern male. (The other officer commissioned graduated from Penn’s top-ranked nursing school.) There is nothing wrong with white southern males, of course (we Scots-Irish are, after all, America’s warrior class), but we can hardly claim to accurately represent our nation’s awesome cultural, racial, social and ethnic diversity, and there is an argument to be made that a nation’s officer corps should do that to some degree. The burden for making that happen falls more heavily on the U.S. Army than it does our nation’s university presidents.

While I agree in principle, this problem will be very difficult to solve.  The Southernization of our military is not a new phenomenon.  The only thing that’s changed in this regard since my days as a cadet nearly a quarter century ago is that the Army has decided to close tiny programs.

Would it be great if more scholar-athletes from our elite schools, like Exum and his CNAS boss Nate Fick, were joining ROTC and serving their country.  The Army would be a better place if we had more like them.   But it’s hard to fault the Army for deciding it couldn’t afford a two cadet ROTC program at Penn.  Nor would it make sense to shut down programs at small schools in Alabama with three dozen eager cadets competing for active duty commissions.   Hell, we had four cadets from Talladega College driving 45 minutes each way twice a week to train with us a Jacksonville State.

Yes, allocating our ROTC battalions based on present demand becomes something of a self-fulfilling prophecy.   But, obviously, having built it didn’t mean they were coming at Penn.

Maybe the answer — and Cadet Command could be already doing this, for all I know — is to get really aggressive in outreach to students at schools outside the traditional geographic concentrations for officer candidates and ensuring that they have every opportunity to participate at ROTC programs at other schools in the area.  But that’s only going to go so far without student interest.

FILED UNDER: *FEATURED, Military Affairs, ,
James Joyner
About James Joyner
James Joyner is a Security Studies professor at Marine Corps University's Command and Staff College and a nonresident senior fellow at the Scowcroft Center for Strategy and Security at the Atlantic Council. He's a former Army officer and Desert Storm vet. Views expressed here are his own. Follow James on Twitter @DrJJoyner.

Comments

  1. sam says:

    We could bring back the draft…

  2. James Joyner says:

    That does seem the logical road to fixing the problem, although it’s a cure worse than the disease.  And, as Schmitt and Miller acknowledge, one that has very little support.

  3. Zelsdorf Ragshaft III says:

    Maybe if our Universities would stop telling our kids America is wrong all the time.  That our economic system is unfair (what part of life is fair?).  Blaming America for the worlds ills and actually teaching history and politics from a historically honest viewpoint rather than from a liberal view, people from all areas of the country would feel ok with defending our special nation.  I am curious.  Why did James quit the military?  After all, it takes a bit of time and effort to get to the rank of Captain in the Army.  Maybe the outlook of getting promoted to Major was not so great.

  4. sam says:

    I just threw that out. I would like to see it, though. I remember when I was in, I met guys who’d never met anyone else of any ethnic persuasion outside the one dominant in the small towns they were from. I enlisted, so of course one might expect this kind of diversity, but this was during the time when the draft was in force, so I’d guess that draftees in the Army had the same experience. I thought the exposure was really a salutory thing.

    As for the Southernizaton of the officer corps. Well, it won’t be the pre-WWII officer corps.
    Our armed forces have always had a disproportionate number of Southern officers. Something about the martial traditions of the South, I guess. Shelby Foote discusses this a bit in his history of the Civil War. John Ford acknowledged and saluted this Southern military tradition in his movies, esp, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon. Sgt. Tyree was a captain in Confederate Army, and when Trooper Smith dies, Brittles (John Wayne), the CO, reveals that he was in fact a Confederate general and supplies the Confederate battle flag for his funeral (presided over by Tyree and several other former Confederate, now Union, troopers).

  5. Rock says:

    How many of the northern or elite eastern colleges or universities will allow a military recruiter on campus? How about those on the left coast?

    Bring back the draft.

  6. sam says:

    “How many of the northern or elite eastern colleges or universities will allow a military recruiter on campus? How about those on the left coast?”

    If they want federal money, and they all do, then they all allow them on campus, I’d imagine.

  7. ponce says:

    Given the current role of the U.S. military it doesn’t really matter who is in charge of it.
     
    If America ever faces an existential threat we’ll all be dead before we know about it…

  8. JKB says:

    Yeah, it is not the universities’ fault they actively create an environment to discourage ROTC participation and then the Army spends their shrinking dollars where they get more bang for the buck.  Nothing stops graduates from the elite urban schools from entering OCS except the schools hostility to permit recruiters on campus and student bias.
     
    If the Army decides the diversity is important, a more efficient and productive way would be to actively recruit individuals and provide scholarship to schools where ROTC programs are healthy.  Is it important to have officers who grew up in NE urban areas and have family ties or attended colleges there?
     
    Let’s face it, the Marine Corps recruiting station in Birmingham probably has a higher recruit rate than Berkley or Boston.

  9. Jason says:

    This isn’t a failure of the U.S. Army. This is the absence of a great majority of our country. If you build it, they don’t always come. Southerners have always appreciated arms, conflict, honor, individual bravado, etc. Thank You God for that. Secondly, patriotism and nationalism runs a strong course through the South land. I once read somewhere that the South will be America’s last stronghold.
    But, I can’t help but point out something underlying here. This isn’t necessarily about the stopping the Southernizaton of the military but more about liberalizing the military. i.e. gay service members.

  10. alkali says:

    I could be wrong, but I would hazard a guess that part of the problem is that the outreach is tailored to the values that white Southerners find particularly attractive — patriotism, tradition, etc.  There is very little focus on the fact that officers in the armed forces do intellectually challenging things, from which some students may infer (wrongly) that young officers don’t do those kinds of things, and are instead expected to take satisfaction in the fact that they are wearing attractive uniforms in the service of their country.

    Every year, young graduates of elite Northeastern colleges borrow tens of thousands of dollars go to law school because they think it’s interesting and that it might lead to something else even if they don’t like the practice of law.  If there were ROTC ads that focus on the fact that officers in the armed forces do interesting things and travel in parts of the world that you won’t see with a Eurailpass, maybe that would divert some of that group.

  11. Maggie Mama says:

    Rock, I often hear someone toss out the “Bring back the draft line.”  It’s also Charley Rangel “old” middlename.  

    The last draft represented a two-year commitment.  In today’s military with the technical training needed to fulfill many of the your assigned duties, you can’t even learn them within that time frame.  

    Tell me, Rock, do you suggest draftees be required to serve longer than two years or should we just put Northern college graduates (aka Yankees) in as Second Louies to counter some kind of ridiculous notion of geographical parity even if they might be dumber than dirt in all issues military?

  12. James Joyner says:

    instead expected to take satisfaction in the fact that they are wearing attractive uniforms in the service of their country.

    Those ugly green polyester uniforms with the lime green shirts that are only just now being phased out weren’t much of a draw, let me tellya.  And, really, the utility unies have been pretty lousy since the old permapress went away and we went to baggy camouflage with unshined boots.


  13. sam says:

    “Let’s face it, the Marine Corps recruiting station in Birmingham probably has a higher recruit rate than Berkley or Boston.”
    Don’t know much about Boston, do you? (I think you meant Cambridge, anyway.)

  14. MarkedMan says:

    The Southern bent doesn’t worry me as much as these two diversity problems in the military:
    1) Unlike the WWII generation (which may have been unique in this way), the wealthy and powerful in this country seem to feel very little desire to join the military or to encourage their children to do so.  This leads to a paucity of political leaders who have served.
    2) Reports  that certain pieces of the services have been taken over by an apocalyptic brand of Christian fundamentalist, (Boyd being an outed example, and one stupid enough not to keep his mouth shut).  I hope that this is an erroneous impression, because coupled with the resentment caused by the lack of military experience in civilian leaders, it could lead to some very ugly actions.
    I have few regrets in life, but one of them is that I came of military age at the end of the Vietnam War and had such negative impressions of the Services that I never considered signing up.

  15. sam says:

    BTW. CAN ANYBODY TELL ME HOW TO USE THE LINK BUTTON TO PUT A LINK IN THESE COMMENTS?
     
    Sorry for yelling.

    Not working for some reason. The rest of the WYSIWYG tools seem to be working but not that one. It’s on the list. – jhj

  16. Brummagem Joe says:

     “The Southernization of our military is not a new phenomenon”

    It certainly isn’t. Based on my experience back in the early sixties I’d have said two thirds of the officer corps then in a draft army was southern. Hence I don’t think instituting a draft deals with this problem if indeed it is a problem. I do think we need to be cognizant of the narrowness of the army as a sliver of society. Including rotations we’ve probably done Iraq and Afghanistan with a force of well under a million men which if we include their wider families means only about 1-2% of the US population have actually been directly affected by these wars. We haven’t even paid for them since they were actually funded off the books for years.   

  17. Brummagem Joe says:

    “And, really, the utility unies have been pretty lousy since the old permapress went away and we went to baggy camouflage with unshined boots.”

    Couldn’t agree more Jim. Our parade turnout these days is on about the level of the Afghan army. 

  18. just me says:

    <i>1) Unlike the WWII generation (which may have been unique in this way), the wealthy and powerful in this country seem to feel very little desire to join the military or to encourage their children to do so.  This leads to a paucity of political leaders who have served.</i>

    I also think this is a potential problem, although the very wealthy often found ways of getting out of service when there was a draft-now they don’t even have to worry about a draft-they don’t even have to think about serving at all.

    Personally I am not sure there is much that can be done to fix the problem.  I do think better, and more pertinent recruitment may be helpful in finding non southern recruits for the officer corps, but I also think there is a general hostility towards military service-although more along the NIMBY thinking.  People will gladly place a service member on a pedestal, but they don’t want their own family members climbing on board that pedestal.

  19. Rock says:

    Maggie Mama says:

    The last draft represented a two-year commitment.  In today’s military with the technical training needed to fulfill many of the your assigned duties, you can’t even learn them within that time frame.

    Unless things have changed, when a person was drafted into the Military, they took on a 6 year commitment. They served 2 years on active duty and have 4 years in the active or inactive reserve after that. Most never did have to serve their reserve commitment, Although they could have been recalled to active duty during that period. Whether this applies now, I don’t know. I think this 6 year commitment is still in effect for the all volunteer service now. Back when the draft was going, enlisted volunteers also had the 6 year commitment.
    But yeah, a 4 year draft and 2 year reserve obligation might be what’s needed. And it doesn’t take 2 years to train a trigger puller – I hope.

     
     

  20. ND says:

    Given our current military structure, I fail to see how a draft would significantly increase the numbers of Americans with a connection to the military or significantly alter its demographics. Only about 60% of the positions in the military are capable of being filled by draftees. You can’t draft SOF, officers or most specialist/technical positions. This leaves only about 860,000 active positions that can be filled by draftees. Even with a draft, a number of people would still want to join voluntarily, further reducing the number positions fillable by conscription.
    A little over 4 million men and women reach military age annually in the United States. In the “best” case scenario assuming with 3-year conscription (equivalent to the longest in the democratic world [Israel]) and no volunteers, approximately 260,000 individuals would enter the military per year through the draft. This is pretty insignificant in a country of 300,000,000.

  21. Grewgills says:

    Expanding on Markedman’s point #1, state by state military recruitment dovetails nicely with the graph in your “Secret to wealth discovered” piece.

  22. Brummagem Joe says:

    ” state by state military recruitment dovetails nicely with the graph in your “Secret to wealth discovered” piece.”

    Relative poverty has always been the underlying reason driving recruitment in a volunteer army. There’s nothing new about that.  

  23. Brummagem Joe says:

    “A little over 4 million men and women reach military age annually in the United States. In the “best” case scenario assuming with 3-year conscription (equivalent to the longest in the democratic world [Israel]) and no volunteers, approximately 260,000 individuals would enter the military per year through the draft. This is pretty insignificant in a country of 300,000,000.”

    Could you explain the math here. If 4 million reach military age and assuming half of them are male and therefore liable for the draft how does this convert into an entry rate of 260,000 a year. Where have the other 1,740,000 gone?

  24. Rock says:

    Canada

  25. ND says:

    @Brummagem

    The 1,740,000 were not drafted because they cannot fit into our current military structure. I prefaced my post with the statement “Given our current military structure…” to illuminate the requirement to expand the military greatly if a draft were to have the desired impact to society. There is simply no way we can realistically train, house, equip, and pay for the 6+ million person military posited by the requirement to draft each male (and female; I personally would not exempt females) reaching military age annually. Israel can do it with their tiny population, but it does not scale well in a high per capita income, +300 million person democracy.

  26. Franklin says:

    If America ever faces an existential threat we’ll all be dead before we know about it…
    Ahhh, an optimist I see.  So what exactly is the world’s largest military by a factor of 10 buying us?  If it can’t face an existential threat with that kind of money, might as well eliminate it completely and save a shitload.
     
    /of course you’re full of it

  27. Franklin says:

    By the way, this is (yet) another reason why neocons should choose their battles wisely.  After the two current disasters, why would *anybody* join the military without a financial need to do so?

  28. Rock says:

    Duty, Honor, Country.
    And a chance to improve the Taliban gene pool.

  29. Ole_Sarge says:

    Re-establish those ROTC sites that were disbanded in the 1960s and 1970s.  The likes of those in academic seats of authority, such as Justice Kagan, are WHY there are very few North-Eastern US born Officers in the U.S. Military in general, and the Army in particular.
    Bring back Jr. ROTC on high school campi (actual plural of campus) in the North Eastern States as well.  But instead of feed in to the active duty service, have more National Guard involvement in the programs.
    Maybe you can’t bring back the military bases that have been closed over the last 30 years, but the government can still provide exposure to the military (the institution of the military services) and to military members (the instructors at an ROTC or Jr. ROTC program)
     
     

  30. Brummagem Joe says:

    ND says:

    Thursday, August 26, 2010 at 20:28

    @Brummagem
    “The 1,740,000 were not drafted because they cannot fit into our current military structure. I prefaced my post with the statement “Given our current military structureThere is simply no way we can realistically train, house, equip, and pay for the 6+ million person military posited by the requirement to draft each male (and female; I personally would not exempt females) reaching military age annually.”

    Obviously if you reintroduced a draft you wouldn’t retain the current military structure. And if we reintroduced the draft it presupposes that a decision has been made to change national priorities both socially and economically. What you can’t do is reinstitute a draft and then only draft about 7% of those eligible according to your criteria.   

  31. Highlander says:

    My Nephew in law was born Yankee, but his family moved to the South, converted to true Southerners, and prospered greatly. After college he became a Marine Corps Officer, went to Iraq and Afghanistan, and killed as many radical Muslims as possible.

    Now he is in charge of Recuritment in an entire state, he tells me that ever  since 9-11 the Corps has had it’s pick of who it ALLOWS to join both for Officer and Enlisted.

    It is all about culture. The elite NE US and the West Coast cultures, are about pacifism, weakness, and submission for males in particular. Not about defending this Nation, which many of them are taught to have contempt for by the yankee educational system.

    Have no fear though Mr Joyner. Soon your Washington elite bosses will turn the US military into an affirmative action program for hommosexuals. At that point real warriors from all parts of the nation will stop joining.

    What real man would want to be a “PINK BERET”?

  32. wr says:

    “Secondly, patriotism and nationalism runs a strong course through the South land. ”

    Except, you know, for that little bit of treason 150 years ago.. and the flood of Southern politicians today who threaten secession.

    Yup, real patriots down there.

  33. wr says:

    ND — Although I’m not advocating a draft here, I think you’re missing a big piece of the picture. The country is currently spending fortunes on “military contractors,” primarily because Bush wasn’t willing to institute a draft. We’ve outsourced and privatized huge swaths of what was once the military’s job. If we actually started a draft, the military could go back to providing its own services…

  34. Cheryl Miller says:

    Hello everyone! Thanks for the link and all the thoughtful comments! I tried to address some of the common concerns about our op-ed over at the AEI blog: http://blog.american.com/?page_id=18789. Again, thanks for reading the piece.

  35. sam says:

    @Rock
    “Back when the draft was going, enlisted volunteers also had the 6 year commitment.”
    Right. I was four years active, two years inactive reserve. I went into boot camp at MCRD San Diego on my 17th birthday, and I didn’t register for the draft. When I got out, I got a letter from my draft board telling me to come down and register. I was surprised, “I just did four years, blah, blah.” But everybody had to register regardless. I went down and signed up and was classified something like 5Y, iirc.
    @Highlander
    “The elite NE US and the West Coast cultures, are about pacifism, weakness, and submission for males in particular.”
    Go up to Massachusetts some time, and count all the Marine Corps flags you see hanging in front of houses. When I lived there, I thought the entire NE had joined the Corps. I don’t live there any more. I live in the Southwest now, and I’ve only see one Marine Corps flag — my own that I fly every November 10.

  36. sam says:

    Highlander’s “observation”  piqued my interest. What are the figures for military recruitment by state? I found these @ http://www.statemaster.com/graph/mil_tot_mil_rec_arm_nav_air_for-recruits-army-navy-air-force
    The figures are for 2004, the latest I could find. I think the numbers pretty much blow a hole in his thesis. These are per capita figures, totals per state are also on the site. The numbers show that the Southern states don’t seem to send recruits to the armed forces in preponderately greater numbers than the other states. In fact, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Mississippi are right down toward the bottom with California. If you look at the total figures, Texas leads, followed by Florida, New York, Pennsylvania, and Illinois.
    # 1 Guam: 14.535 per 10,000 people  
    # 2 Montana: 8.529 per 10,000 people
    # 3 Oklahoma: 7.438 per 10,000 people
    # 4 Hawaii: 7.215 per 10,000 people
    # 5 Alabama: 6.959 per 10,000 people
    # 6 American Samoa: 6.911 per 10,000 people
    # 7 Texas: 6.822 per 10,000 people
    # 8 Louisiana: 6.661 per 10,000 people
    # 9 Kansas: 6.642 per 10,000 people
    # 10 Virginia: 6.55 per 10,000 people
    # 11 Nebraska: 6.385 per 10,000 people
    # 12 Washington: 6.269 per 10,000 people
    # 13 Alaska: 6.118 per 10,000 people
    # 14 Missouri: 6.074 per 10,000 people
    # 15 Wyoming: 6.028 per 10,000 people
    # 16 Maine: 5.993 per 10,000 people
    # 17 Colorado: 5.931 per 10,000 people
    # 18 Idaho: 5.92 per 10,000 people
    # 19 US Virgin Islands: 5.795 per 10,000 people
    # 20 Georgia: 5.728 per 10,000 people
    # 21 Arkansas: 5.707 per 10,000 people
    # 22 New Mexico: 5.673 per 10,000 people
    # 23 Arizona: 5.669 per 10,000 people
    # 24 South Dakota: 5.632 per 10,000 people
    # 25 West Virginia: 5.62 per 10,000 people
    # 26 Indiana: 5.41 per 10,000 people
    # 27 Oregon: 5.389 per 10,000 people
    # 28 Florida: 5.386 per 10,000 people
    # 29 Maryland: 5.221 per 10,000 people
    # 30 Iowa: 5.195 per 10,000 people
    # 31 North Dakota: 5.058 per 10,000 people
    # 32 Kentucky: 5.053 per 10,000 people
    # 33 Tennessee: 4.857 per 10,000 people
    # 34 New Hampshire: 4.848 per 10,000 people
    # 35 Wisconsin: 4.686 per 10,000 people
    # 36 Nevada: 4.663 per 10,000 people
    # 37 Pennsylvania: 4.631 per 10,000 people
    # 38 Illinois: 4.496 per 10,000 people
    # 39 Delaware: 4.197 per 10,000 people
    # 40 Minnesota: 3.912 per 10,000 people
    # 41 New York: 3.907 per 10,000 people
    # 42 Vermont: 3.611 per 10,000 people
    # 43 District of Columbia: 3.433 per 10,000 people
    # 44 New Jersey: 3.153 per 10,000 people
    # 45 Massachusetts: 3.058 per 10,000 people
    # 46 Connecticut: 2.903 per 10,000 people
    # 47 Rhode Island: 2.899 per 10,000 people
    # 48 South Carolina: 0.674 per 10,000 people
    # 49 North Carolina: 0.569 per 10,000 people
    # 50 Mississippi: 0.551 per 10,000 people
    # 51 Ohio: 0.511 per 10,000 people
    # 52 Utah: 0.458 per 10,000 people
    # 53 California: 0.456 per 10,000 people
    # 54 Michigan: 0.431 per 10,000 people
    # 55 Puerto Rico: 0.355 per 10,000 people
    Weighted average: 4.9 per 10,000 peop

  37. James Joyner says:

    @Sam

    The chart would have to take into account age. But, even aside from that, the states toward the top are overwhelmingly Southern and rural, no?

  38. sam says:

    I don’t see that JJ, the Southern part. Those are per cap figures, here are the totals:
    # 1 Texas: 15,594
    # 2 Florida: 9,581
    # 3 New York: 7,523
    # 4 Pennsylvania: 5,756
    # 5 Illinois: 5,738
    # 6 Georgia: 5,197
    # 7 Virginia: 4,957
    # 8 Washington: 3,942
    # 9 Missouri: 3,523
    # 10 Indiana: 3,393
    # 11 Arizona: 3,367
    # 12 Alabama: 3,172
    # 13 Louisiana: 3,013
    # 14 Maryland: 2,924
    # 15 Tennessee: 2,896
    # 16 Colorado: 2,767
    # 17 New Jersey: 2,749
    # 18 Oklahoma: 2,639
    # 19 Wisconsin: 2,594
    # 20 Kentucky: 2,109
    # 21 Minnesota: 2,008
    # 22 Oregon: 1,962
    # 23 Massachusetts: 1,957
    # 24 Kansas: 1,823
    # 25 California: 1,648
    # 26 Arkansas: 1,586
    # 27 Iowa: 1,541
    # 28 Nevada: 1,126
    # 29 Nebraska: 1,123
    # 30 New Mexico: 1,094
    # 31 West Virginia: 1,021
    # 32 Connecticut: 1,019
    # 33 Hawaii: 920
    # 34 Idaho: 846
    # 35 Montana: 798
    # 36 Maine: 792
    # 37 New Hampshire: 635
    # 38 Ohio: 586
    # 39 North Carolina: 494
    # 40 South Dakota: 437
    # 41 Michigan: 436
    # 42 Alaska: 406
    # 43 Delaware: 354
    # 44 North Dakota: 322
    # 45 Rhode Island: 312
    # 46 Wyoming: 307
    # 47 South Carolina: 287
    # 48 Guam: 245
    # 49 Vermont: 225
    # 50 District of Columbia: 189
    # 51 Mississippi: 161
    # 52 Puerto Rico: 139
    # 53 Utah: 113
    # 54 US Virgin Islands: 63
    # 55 American Samoa: 40
    Total: 120,449
    Weighted average: 2,190.0