Monday’s Forum

Steven L. Taylor
About Steven L. Taylor
Steven L. Taylor is a Professor of Political Science and a College of Arts and Sciences Dean. His main areas of expertise include parties, elections, and the institutional design of democracies. His most recent book is the co-authored A Different Democracy: American Government in a 31-Country Perspective. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Texas and his BA from the University of California, Irvine. He has been blogging since 2003 (originally at the now defunct Poliblog). Follow Steven on Twitter


  1. Scott says:

    All Of This Has Happened Before And It All Will Happen Again

    N.J.’s forgotten history of hate

    At a summer camp in northwest New Jersey, cabins surround a lake. A photograph from 1937 shows hundreds of teenage boys dressed in light brown shirts and shorts, and girls in white blouses and black skirts carrying flags. At first, it looks like a typical summer camp of that era. But on a closer look, one sees pressed uniforms, lockstep marching, and flags with swastikas, alongside stars and stripes

    I grew up on Long Island and went to school there. But we were never told this history:

    Camp Siegfried, a summer camp which taught Nazi ideology, was located in Yaphank, New York on Long Island. It was owned by the German American Bund, an American Nazi organization devoted to promoting a favorable view of Nazi Germany, and was operated by the German American Settlement League (GASL). Camp Siegfried was one of many such camps in the US in the 1930s, including Camp Hindenberg in Grafton, Wisconsin, Camp Nordland in Andover, New Jersey, Deutschhorst Country Club in Sellersville, Pennsylvania, and a camp in Windham, New York.

  2. MarkedMan says:

    There was discussion yesterday about whether the primary system is what led to the extremism of the Republican Party. It may have contributed, but the fundamental mechanism is a simple feedback loop. As loonies and extremists get more control, the party becomes more attractive to such people and less attractive to sensible and moral people. This isn’t new and isn’t limited to party systems or even democracies.

  3. OzarkHillbilly says:

    Global ice loss accelerating at record rate, study finds

    The melting of ice across the planet is accelerating at a record rate, with the melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets speeding up the fastest, research has found.

    The rate of loss is now in line with the worst-case scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the world’s leading authority on the climate, according to a paper published on Monday in the journal The Cryosphere.
    Over the period studied, the rate of ice loss accelerated by 65%, the paper found, from 0.8tn tonnes a year in the 1990s to 1.3 trillion tonnes a year by 2017. About half of all the ice lost was from land, which contributes directly to global sea level rises. The ice loss over the study period, from 1994 to 2017, is estimated to have raised sea levels by 35 millimetres.

    The greatest quantities of ice were lost from floating ice in the polar regions, raising the risk of a feedback mechanism known as albedo loss. White ice reflects solar radiation back into space – the albedo effect – but when floating sea ice melts it uncovers dark water which absorbs more heat, speeding up the warming further in a feedback loop.

    Glaciers showed the next biggest loss of ice volume, with more than 6tn tonnes lost between 1994 and 2017, about a quarter of global ice loss over the period. The shrinking of glaciers threatens to cause both flooding and water shortages in some regions, because as large volumes melt they can overwhelm downstream areas, then shrunken glaciers produce less of the steady water flow needed for agriculture.

    When those Chinese pull a hoax, they don’t fuck around.

  4. MarkedMan says:

    There has long been a myth that “Americans don’t negotiate with terrorists!” It wasn’t true in the time of Jefferson and the Barbary Pirates and it wasn’t true with Reagan and the Iranian mullahs. But the Republican leadership has finally made it a reality. Given the 140+ Republican House members who voted to overturn an election and the 40+ Republican Senators who are about to vote to exonerate the coup leader, I think it’s safe to say they won’t negotiate with terrorists. They just immediately give in.

  5. Sleeping Dog says:

    Once again, the vaunted ‘job creators’ seek protection behind their mother’s government’s skirts at the first whiff of competition.

    Federal marijuana reform looms after Senate flip — and Massachusetts could end up a loser
    Local activists, investors, and operators see risks in reforms they’ve long sought

    But even advocates and marijuana business owners who have long demanded such reforms are eyeing the possibility of their implementation with decidedly mixed feelings.

    That’s because a liberalization of federal cannabis laws — while it could reduce prosecutions, wipe away old marijuana convictions, and alleviate the many business headaches that come with selling a federally illegal product — threatens to massively disrupt state-regulated pot markets across the country.

    In particular, the advent of interstate marijuana commerce, which is currently banned, would explode the economic assumptions behind growing cannabis in states such as Massachusetts.

    A roadmap for the new Congress: From dysfunction to meaningful change

    I like the idea of having House and Senate debates on legislation scheduled for the evening. Schumer and Pelosi should pick out some of the most popular pieces of legislation and dare Rs to register their opposition. Make the suckers vote.

  6. Liberal Capitalist says:


    There has long been a myth that “Americans don’t negotiate with terrorists!”

    Today it was announced that LIKELY Trump would not start a MAGA party, and that he would campaign for the success of GOP candidates… unless of course if republicans voted for his impeachment.


    Nice little party ya got there… it be a shame if anything happened to it.

  7. MarkedMan says:

    @Liberal Capitalist: I gotta say, I think this crew of cravens are frightened enough to actually hope that Trump keeps his word, a laughable concept. If he wants to create a third party he will do so, no matter what he promises.

  8. Jon says:

    @Liberal Capitalist: He won’t do anything that requires his own money, only things that enable him to use (and skim off of) other people’s money. It is probably much easier to demand speaking fees from Republican candidates than it is to find people to fund an entire new party on his behalf.

  9. MarkedMan says:

    @Jon: The big money is if he runs though. He can scam hundreds of millions of dollars or more from the Trumpers. Even if the Republicans vote to convict (not gonna happen) he can simple shift the campaign from “Presidential Candidate” to “Constitutional Amendment to allow him to run”. Trumpers want anger and resentment and payback. They will rally behind any words Trump says, whatever they are or whatever they are about. And mail in their social security checks.

  10. Jon says:

    @MarkedMan: Yup, for sure. Also big money in teasing a run, since he gets to have a semi-opaque PAC.

    And really, even if he is convicted and barred from office he’ll run anyway and sue all the while to overturn, complaining about how unfair it all is.

  11. Kathy says:

    I hesitate to label this bad news, or good. His Majesty King Manuel Andres the Last of Mexico has found COVID-19 after courting it for months. I guess this is good for him?

    As usual, he’s downplaying it. He’s had a heart attack and suffers from hypertension, so he’s at higher risk than normal. I know that he might be hooked to a ventilator and turning purple all over, and dispatches from the presidency would still talk about “mild symptoms.” He will be getting the best care available, but I don’t know if that includes monoclonal antibodies.

    What I don’t get, is why he didn’t get vaccinated. Sure, with under a million doses given, it’s not like we’re swimming in vaccines, but he could easily get one, and have it administered live on TV to set the example and show it’s safe. As vaccinations started on Dec. 24th, he’d have had his second dose by now.

    I guess covidiots just gotta covidiot.

  12. EddieInCA says:

    If you have Amazon Prime, see “One Night in Miami”.

    Really well done. Multiple Oscar nominations are coming for this film.

  13. CSK says:

    Rob Portman says he won’t be seeking re-election. Says the gridlock is too much.

  14. Mister Bluster says:

    @Sleeping Dog:..the advent of interstate marijuana commerce, which is currently banned,..

    Banned! Like nobody ever did that before!

  15. MarkedMan says:

    For all those eternal optimists who believe the Republicans should retain the filibuster because, norms: all the Senatorial committees still retain Republican leadership because they are filibustering the changeover.

    But remember, we must preserve norms!

  16. PJ says:

    Undercounting of Covid-19 deaths is greatest in pro-Trump areas, analysis shows

    In total across the country, there were 44 excess deaths that weren’t officially recognized as Covid-19 for every 100 official Covid-19 deaths. But the uncounted deaths are far higher in the 25% of counties with the most Trump voters in 2020, with 163 excess deaths for every 100 Covid-19 deaths. In comparison, there were just 18 excess deaths per 100 Covid-19 deaths in the bottom quarter of these counties.

    Well, they owned the libs by dying…

  17. Kathy says:


    This is rather reminiscent of China’s Great Leap “Forward.” IN that case, however, officials were reporting non-existent record harvests, not the lack of something that did exist.

    And in fairness to the Chinese people and officials of that time, Mao’s was a totalitarian regime, with all the brutal, nasty, excessive punishments to match. America lacks such measures.

  18. Mister Bluster says:

    @Kathy:..America lacks such measures.
    I heard some news recordings of Trump’s terrorist thugs chanting “suspend the constitution” as they ransacked The United States Capitol on January 6, 2021. Clearly there are American citizens who would support such acts.
    And let’s not forget Guantánamo

  19. Gustopher says:

    @Mister Bluster: I’m willing to send them to Guantanamo.

  20. Michael Reynolds says:

    I have a suggestion for the OTB headliners. We all now live in a largely post-Trump world. We are a bit bereft. So, I think we should talk issues, and I think our headliners are well up to the task. Let’s talk about solutions for AGW and infrastructure. Let’s talk culture and foreign and defense policy. It’s a new day. Yay!

  21. Kathy says:

    @Michael Reynolds:

    Not that I disagree, but there is much detrumpification to do yet. There’s the matter of the DoJ inspector general looking at the deputy acting AG’s move to replace the acting AG, because the latter wouldn’t aid in Trump’s coup.

    Then the Supreme Court apparently dismissed the emolument lawsuits pending against Trump. That’s utterly ridiculous. If he received illegal payments, he should on no account be allowed to keep them. And if these illegal payments unfairly harmed others, they are still entitled to seek redress for them.

    And let us not forget El Cheeto tried to steal the election, and if that’s not a crime, then all bets are off from now on. We get to the point were Nixon’s “if the president does it, it’s not illegal” wish comes true. Aside from inciting the crowd at his rally, there are the calls with Georgia officials, and I doubt the aforementioned acting deputy AG acted on his own.

    At this point we should not care whether it looks like political persecution, payback, or whatnot. It’s imperative to put a hard stop to these kinds of criminal activity. as we say here often, were Trump minimally competent he’d likely have succeeded in his attempted coup. And a coup is no less serious because it failed.

    He should be charged with sedition, after a thorough investigation, and then tried, convicted and imprisoned for the rest of his miserable existence.

    If not, then get some shovels, because American democracy will be dead.

  22. MarkedMan says:

    @Michael Reynolds: I second the motion. I’ve found that since the inauguration I have not clicked on many stories or opinion pieces that seem to be mostly about Trump’s Travesties. I’ve never felt the problem was Trump. He’s a barely self aware monkey and there are lots of monkeys. The problem was the system and the people who put a monkey in charge. And the greater issue is that we have a lot of problems of great import, and having a monkey in charge kept us from focusing on them. Now that we have a real person in charge, let’s shift the focus.

  23. MarkedMan says:

    @Kathy: Don’t disagree. Those are institutional problems that exist outside of which particular monkey was in charge.

  24. Just nutha ignint cracker says:

    With the news of potential problems for the Trump real estate “empire,” I’d been wondering what the boys would do for a living. Apparently, the problem is solved for Eric, at least. Well maybe, anyway.

    There’s already a little infighting in Trumpworld over a potential North Carolina Senate bid by Lara Trump, Eric Trump’s wife. Also interested is former Trump chief of staff Mark Meadows. But, we’re told, “Lara has the first right of refusal.” …

    It would appear that his new career could well be “househusband.”

  25. Sleeping Dog says:

    @Just nutha ignint cracker:

    It would appear that his new career could well be “househusband.”

    He could turn it into a reality show, The Real Househusbands of Charlotte.

  26. CSK says:

    @Michael Reynolds: @MarkedMan:
    Yeah, but it’s so much fun to slag on Trump.

  27. CSK says:

    @Just nutha ignint cracker: @Sleeping Dog:
    Isn’t he the “head” of the Trump Winery in Virginia?

  28. Mister Bluster says:

    @Michael Reynolds:..infrastructure.

    When Barack Obama was President signs like this were in my town promoting
    Infrastructure investment
    Total: $105.3 billion

    Total: $48.1 billion
    $27.5 billion for highway and bridge construction projects
    $8 billion for intercity passenger rail projects and rail congestion grants, with priority for high-speed rail
    $6.9 billion for new equipment for public transportation projects (Federal Transit Administration)
    $1.5 billion for national surface transportation discretionary grants
    $1.3 billion for Amtrak
    $1.1 billion in grants for airport improvements
    $750 million for the construction of new public rail transportation systems and other fixed guideway systems.
    $750 million for the maintenance of existing public transportation systems
    $200 million for FAA upgrades to air traffic control centers and towers, facilities, and equipment
    $100 million in grants for improvements to domestic shipyards

    Water, sewage, environment, and public lands
    Total: $18 billion
    $4.6 billion for the Army Corps of Engineers for environmental restoration, flood protection, hydropower, and navigation infrastructure projects
    $4 billion for the Clean Water State Revolving Fund wastewater treatment infrastructure improvements (EPA)
    $2 billion for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund drinking water infrastructure improvements (EPA)
    $1.38 billion for rural drinking water and waste disposal projects
    $1 billion to the Bureau of Reclamation for drinking water projects for rural or drought-likely areas
    $750 million to the National Park Service
    $650 million to the Forest Service
    $600 million for hazardous waste cleanup at Superfund sites (EPA)
    $515 million for wildfire prevention projects
    $500 million for Bureau of Indian Affairs infrastructure projects
    $340 million to the Natural Resources Conservation Service for watershed infrastructure projects
    $320 million to the Bureau of Land Management
    $300 million for reductions in emissions from diesel engines (EPA)
    $300 million to improve Land Ports of Entry (GSA)
    $280 million for National Wildlife Refuges and the National Fish Hatchery System
    $220 million to the International Boundary and Water Commission to repair flood control systems along the Rio Grande
    $200 million for cleanup of leaking Underground Storage Tanks (EPA)
    $100 million for cleaning former industrial and commercial sites (Brownfields) (EPA)

    Government buildings and facilities
    Total: $7.2 billion
    $4.2 billion to repair and modernize Defense Department facilities.
    $890 million to improve housing for service members
    $750 million for federal buildings and U.S. Courthouses (GSA)
    $250 million to improve Job Corps training facilities
    $240 million for new child development centers
    $240 million for the maintenance of United States Coast Guard facilities
    $200 million for Department of Homeland Security headquarters
    $176 million for Agriculture Research Service repairs and improvements
    $150 million for the construction of state extended-care facilities
    $100 million to improve facilities of the National Guard

    Communications, information, and security technologies
    Total: $10.5 billion
    $7.2 billion for complete broadband and wireless Internet access
    $1 billion for explosive detection systems for airports
    $500 million to update the computer center at the Social Security Administration
    $420 million for construction and repairs at ports of entry
    $290 million to upgrade IT platforms at the State Department
    $280 million to upgrade border security technologies
    $210 million to build and upgrade fire stations
    $200 million for IT and claims processing improvements for Veterans Benefits Administration
    $150 million to upgrade port security
    $150 million for the security of transit systems
    $50 million for IT improvements at the Farm Service Agency
    $26 million to improve security systems at the Department of Agriculture headquarters
    Energy infrastructure
    Total: $21.5 billion
    $6 billion for the cleanup of radioactive waste (mostly nuclear weapons production sites)[57]
    $4.5 billion for the Office of Electricity and Energy Reliability to modernize the nation’s electrical grid and smart grid.
    $4.5 billion to increase energy efficiency in federal buildings (GSA)
    $3.25 billion for the Western Area Power Administration for power transmission system upgrades.
    $3.25 billion for the Bonneville Power Administration for power transmission system upgrades.

  29. Mister Bluster says:

    @Mister Bluster:..No edit button…


  30. CSK says:
  31. Kathy says:


    I wouldn’t be so sure. Going forward, it might nor matter. Prior to Trump, though, I don’t recall any real president trying to profit off his properties or business while in office. Plenty made a bundle in speaking fees and book deals later, but that seemed to be the deal.

    Myths were built around elections and the economy, yes, but I can’t conceive anyone, even Nixon, trying to stage a coup, however incompetently, nor even failing to concede an electoral defeat.

  32. Kathy says:

    On to more cheerful thoughts:

    yesterday I made plain ground turkey patties, baked in the oven. I then smothered them (no other word will do) in a sauce made with 2 sliced onions, some garlic, balsamic vinegar, tomato pure, some Dijon mustard (whatever was left in the jar, not much), a Tbsp. of grain mustard, and some no-sugar-added ketchup.

    Better than I expected.

  33. Liberal Capitalist says:

    I wonder what it feels like to get sued for 1.3 BILLION dollars for lying about a company ?

    Oh… respond by saying you are being persecuted by the left wing and they are taking away your right to free speech?

    So much wrong there. Does Rudy even law at all? He must law like I brain surgery.

    Poor, poor Rudy.

  34. Just nutha ignint cracker says:

    @CSK: Is that supposed to be a job? I wasn’t even aware that Trump wine was sold anywhere anymore. I’m not even sure that the patrons of Mar al Lago drink it. Visiting the winery website just now, I saw no indications whatsoever of any attempts to either market the product nor to inform people of where it was for sale. I’m not even sure anyone CAN buy it–not even at the tasting room.

  35. CSK says:

    @Liberal Capitalist:
    What did Giuliani and Sidney Powell expect? They made a bunch of totally unsubstantiated libelous and slanderous claims against Dominion.

  36. CSK says:

    @Just nutha ignint cracker:
    I’ve never seen it sold anywhere. If I did, I wouldn’t buy it.

  37. Just nutha ignint cracker says:

    @CSK: Yeah, that article was certainly depressing. My fondest hope would have to rest on the possibility that typical Trump acolytes probably DON’T HAVE $100/yr. to spend with their existing commitments to Pat Robertson and buying survival rations from Jim Bakker, but it’s possible that schools not being open has freed up the kiddos lunch money, so I guess it’s possible.

    What I WAS a little confused about, though, was the idea that the creditors for Doral would want to sell the property for more than the $125 million they are owed. It’s not like they get to keep the surplus, and even the darling of evangelicals, financial maven Dave Ramsey, holds that one should never buy a investment property for more than 40% of its market value. If the sale is distressed enough, I would expect that Deutsche Bank would need to take a “haircut” on the debt to sell it at all. Is Doral really worth $340 or so million?

  38. Kathy says:

    So, apparently vaccine tourism has started. I’ve heard of two people, both of whom live in Mexico City, who’ve managed to get vaccinated in Florida. One even got the second dose very recently.

    I can’t say I mind, even though I couldn’t do it myself. The more people are vaccinated globally sooner, the better all around. But it’s going to play havoc with the count.

  39. Liberal Capitalist says:


    So, apparently vaccine tourism has started.

    Annnnnnnd…. ended.

    Many in FL complained that this was the case. Since FL is big on seasonal workers, part time residents and tourists, having those that qualify inoculated made sense. So much sense that they stopped it.

    Now you have to prove residency (license) or proof of longer tern temporary residency (utility bills, etc).

    Of course, now you have a problem with the undocumented residents (both legal and illegal) not receiving a vaccine.

    Those sharp elbows found a way to move up in the line, eh?

  40. Kathy says:

    @Liberal Capitalist:

    That face will really miss its nose, you’ll see.

  41. CSK says:

    @Just nutha ignint cracker:
    DB is probably assuming that it’s better to recover some of the money than none of it.

  42. Kathy says:

    @Just nutha ignint cracker:

    He may go the subscription service route, if for no other reason that it’s the thing to do these days in digital media.

    But, can he run such a con from prison? I doubt there’s good connectivity at Ft. Leavenworth.

    IMO, trump better hope he gets convicted and disqualified from further office some February. If that happens, the public mood for letting the rest of his criminal activity go would increase, and the impetus to prosecute him will decrease.

    If he skates, I can see ambitious prosecutors, both state and federal, and even some Republicans, going after him. trump clearly went beyond the pale in 1) the lie about the election, 2) the attempts to alter the results of the count, and 3) above all by inciting an insurrection.

    He has to pay a price for that.

  43. OzarkHillbilly says:

    @CSK: Yeah, he could break the gridlock, but that really would be too much.

  44. Jen says:


    A friend of mine who lives in Virginia can get it nearby. She doesn’t buy it, just posts pictures on Facebook. Definitely for sale.

  45. OzarkHillbilly says:

    @CSK: What did Giuliani and Sidney Powell expect?

    They are white and if not exactly wealthy, they don’t have to worry about money. They didn’t expect anything would happen to them.

  46. CSK says:

    I looked it up, and there appear to be three places in eastern Mass. that carry it. None near me–and my town has at least five liquor and wine stores.

    Even the dopiest lawyer should be conversant with the libel and slander laws.

  47. Kathy says:

    On other matters, I finished “Pandora’s Lab; Seven Stories of Science Gone Wrong,” by Paul Offit MD.

    The book explores seven instances where a development, practice, or discovery wrought a great dela of harm to many people. It contains a great dela of background, where appropriate. For instance, we know what happened with opioids, but did you know it’s been happening for a really long time? Morphine, an opiate, was developed long ago. but Heroin was originally developed as a medical opiate as well.

    My important takeaway from the book is what the author hammers on time and again: it’s all about the data. What matters for any development is what the data says about benefits, harms, usefulness, cost, etc.

    People tend to construct narratives, which are very appealing. That’s fine, but the narrative proves nothing if it’s not backed up by data. If you get stuck in the narrative, you wind up with opioid addiction epidemics, or crippling lobotomies*, etc. The human cost can be great, even when the economic costs aren’t.

    Well worth reading.

    I would love a similar book looking at economic practices and other aspects of social scienes.

    *The book states something I’d suspected for a long time: there is no benefit at all to lobotomies.

  48. Moosebreath says:

    @Just nutha ignint cracker:

    “It would appear that his new career could well be “househusband.””

    No, she’s running for the other house of Congress. It should be “Senatehusband”.

  49. gVOR08 says:

    @Liberal Capitalist: Yeah. Vaccine tourism got a lot of press and the base (me, me, me) hate it, so Governor (sic) DeSantis made noises about ending it.

  50. CSK says:

    Trump will be setting up an Office of the Former President.

    I am not joking.

  51. de stijl says:


    Possibly. Though it would require committed work and discipline of which Trump has none of the characteristics to do that.

    If it can be delegated or out-sourced or licenced or half-assed, sure, Trump knows that. If it requires dedicated personal effort, no freakin’ way it happens.

    Lazy and litigious gets you so far.

  52. Franklin says:

    @PJ: I suggested that we may be approaching 600,000 actual Covid deaths when we “officially” hit 400K. For one thing, the number of deaths compared to previous years was much higher than 400,000. But the number of deaths from the flu and other respiratory sicknesses has almost disappeared due to the masks, handwashing, and other precautions. But *something* is making up for those missing deaths. [cough, Covid, cough]

  53. CSK says:

    @de stijl:
    Well, of course other people will be doing whatever work is involved. That’s a given with Trump. What do you want to bet he’s having a replica of the Oval Office built at Mar-a-Lago, with portraits him him covering the walls?

  54. de stijl says:


    I always thought of Kramer’s version on The Merv Griffin Show when he found the abandoned set and decided to to recreate the format and form.

    Trump wanted a kitchen cabinet of key media figures bewitched and beholden. Such a petty person.

    A simulacrum of an effective leader. It would be sad and tragic were it not the Presidency and not now. You can be a fool on your dime, not on the publics’.

  55. Just nutha ignint cracker says:

    @Jen: Good to know. I can send a bottle to my brother in Williamsburg as a gag gift for his 75th birthday next year.

  56. de stijl says:

    One time I was at a kinda blind exit to an offramp. You had to creep almost into traffic to see if you could join the flow.

    I had done that dance a hundred times at least. Creep up but not into the flow but don’t bolt in at 5 mph and kill the traffic flow.

    One evening cop car was directly behind me. I let off the brakes thinking to scoot the interval but thought better and she banged into my bumper thinking I had already gone for it and my space was hers.

    My vehicle was untouched except for a paint scratch on rear bumper.

    She was nailed on culpability and knew it. Fronted tough for half a minute. Hit a non-moving vehicle and there is no way to finesse that. It was amazing to watch her squirm thru authority aggression to please don’t call this in.

    She made a poor instant decision. As much as I dislike cops, she was not a perpetrator.

    How often as a citizen do you get to be the decider on whether a cop faces consequences? I could have seriously messed up her career.

    I passed. She had done no wrong to me or mine.

    Her front quarter panel got smushed a bit but my bumper barely had a paint smear. I can maintain class hatred towards an element, and not be dickish about a non-issue interaction. I was trying to demonstrate conciliatory behavior.

  57. BHertel says:

    @Scott: @Scott:
    “in 1936 it was rebranded the German-American Bund (Amerikadeutscher Volksbund), dissociated from the Nazi Party, and open only to U.S. citizens of German descent. Bund headquarters were in New York City, but the organization had chapters from coast to coast.”